Response to Intervention (RTI) – Pre-Referral Process Paper for the State of New York
The types of decisions made by educators to locate or address problems include:
• Screening (Are there unrecognized problems?)
• Progress monitoring. (Is the student making adequate progress toward individual goals and states standards?)
• Instructional planning and modification (What can we do to enhance competence and build capacity and how can we do it?)
• Resource allocation (Are additional resources needed?)
• Eligibility for special Education services for English speaking and limited English language learners. (Is the student eligible for special education and related services?)
• Program evaluation. (Are instructional programs effective?)
• Accountability decisions. (Are we achieving desired outcomes?)
Screening, instructional planning, eligibility, and progress evaluation are decisions made for individual students. Resource allocation decisions are system decisions that apply to individual students. Program evaluation and accountability decisions are made for groups rather than individuals.
The following assessment process is used in schools to locate or address problems:
1. Universal screening reveals a difference between expected and actual performance.
2. If a significant discrepancy is identified, targeted interventions (Tier 2) are attempted to resolve the problem.
3. The problem is verified, alternative hypotheses are generated, interventions are attempted, and assessment data are collected.
4. If sufficient progress is not evident, more intensive (Tier 3) interventions are attempted.
5. After a variety of methods for intervening are attempted, the student may be referred for an assessment for special education eligibility.
6. After a multidisciplinary team completes the student’s assessment and the student is found eligible for special education services, the student can begin to receive services.
7. An individualized education plan (IEP) is written, and annual goals and objectives are specified along with instructional methods to be used to achieve the goals.
8. Teachers monitor student progress toward IEP goals annually, and continuing eligibility for special education services is reviewed every three years.
After completing the Required Studies, submit a three to four page paper on the following:
1. Describe your beliefs, experiences, and what you see as the special educator’s role in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model for English and limited English language learners
• If you have any experience with RTI, discuss your experience and involvement. Discuss both the positive aspects and benefits, as well as any drawbacks you may have experienced or believe about RTI at your respective teaching level (ECE/elementary or middle level or secondary).
• If you have yet to have real life experience with RTI, reflect on the reading as well as the book. Discuss what you imagine the benefits or drawbacks to be, then describe what you see the special educator’s role to be in RTI.
2. Describe how RTI affects the pre-referral process at your teaching level (ECE/elementary, middle level, or secondary).
Support your statements with evidence from the Required Studies and your research. Cite and reference your sources in APA style.
The chapters, I’ve uploaded are for the book below.
Salvia, John. (2013). Assessment: In Special and Inclusive Education, 12th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781133709572/