Senior Citizens are not up-to-date when it comes to digital technology and computer programs
Proposal Chapters 1, 2, and 3
School of Advanced Studies, University of Phoenix
Dr. Gholam Ali Shaykhian
May 4, 2016
Technology is here to stay in the 21st century, and low cost information technology can change the way people interact with one another. One demographic routinely ignored when addressing the benefits of digital technology and computer programs is senior citizens. While senior citizens would benefit from technology, which will improves there health care and social outcomes, they have difficulty adjusting to it. Compelling evidence in the literature suggests this difficulty with technology is less of a cultural resistance and more of a fundamental lack of accessible training and literacy. Senior citizens are not able to access computer knowledge to develop related skills (Wood, 2010).
The senior citizen has challenges in acquiring computer skills, partly because of not having lessons on computer skills in school (Wood, 2010). The modern world requires everyone to possess basic computer skills, especially when computer access is necessary to acquire information (Wood, 2010). Many services use digital computer technology to obtain records, government services, pay slips, banking services, and monitoring the performance of children in school (Suntanto, 2012). For these reasons, it is important the senior citizens population learn computer skills because computers are necessary for adapting the modern society.
Background of the Problem
The issue reveals a number of compelling studies, which provide a meaningful overview of the current situation and the most significant social factors contributing to it. McMurtrey, (2011) research completed a large, random-sampling survey of senior citizens to gauge perspectives toward interaction with information technology (McMurtrey, 2011). McMurtrey (2011) revealed an important point: even if senior citizens do want to learn how to interface with information technology, restrictive access to training or education becomes an obstacle. Resistance is also an issue, which other studies have chosen to investigate (Gilly, 2012). The primary obstacle to acceptance appears to be usage; senior citizens lack support when confronted with technology, stemming from the lack of available education (Gilly, 2012). Many companies are now making efforts to market information technology directly toward seniors, by focusing less on robust features and more on the ease of use or on bundled training materials (Smith, 2012).
A Tech-savvy, (2013) study discovered that 57% of all senior citizens consider options for controlling their health services remotely (Tech-savvy, 2013). Senior citizens are interested in alternative methods for care delivery that is only possible by the three health care providers (Tech-savvy, 2013). This is unfortunate because, as a 2012 study points out, because, when seniors are given access to such tools, they have a tendency to become more directly involved and invested in their own care and in turn, produces superior care outcomes over both the short and long term (Pulli, 2012). In reality, a major obstacle to adopting such practices may not actually be the attitudes of seniors toward digital technology and computer program use.
The problem is the difficulty senior citizens face when adjusting to using digital technology and computer programs, because of the lack of computer literacy skills (Lorence & Park, 2006). Indications shows that, in terms of technology education, 56% of senior citizens prefer to use printed materials and books and less than 30% prefer using electronic learning materials (Kaur & Taha, 2011). Lorence and Park, (2006) argue that a discrepancy in skill level is the main reason seniors have a difficult time adjusting to new technology. Many senior citizens avoid computer programs and applications that young people consider second nature (Regec, 2011). Osman, Poulson, and Nicolle, (2010) stated that 40% of seniors blame age-related functional limitations, such as vision issues, cognitive decline, and hearing loss, for their inability to adapt to and use new technology (Osman, Poulson, & Nicolle, 2010). The result of doing so is a significant increase in the gap of technology skills between senior citizens and younger generations (Lehrman, 2010). Kaur and Taha (2011) revealed that approximately 78% of senior citizens in the United States do not currently use a computer. The lack of interest in using new technology because of perceptions of the technology’s complicated or not having the knowledge necessary to operate technological devices (Kaur & Taha, 2011).
The problem is 78% of senior citizens do not possess computer skills and have difficulties in adapting to new technology (Kaur & Taha, 2011). Campbell and Wabb (2011) stated that extensive and recent advances in technology leaves many seniors behind. The Collective case studies, design enables an in-depth understanding of the behaviors of senior citizens toward adopting new technology. The study will also address how and why seniors find it difficult to adopt new information and technology. Data used in this collective case studies will comprised of structured interviews, peer reviewed journals, and analyses of materials and documents from literature review. The study will creates an understanding of the barriers senior citizens face while adopting new technology, which can aid policy developers and non-government organizations (NGOs) concerned with integrating senior citizens and new technology (Kaur & Taha, 2011).
Lack of interest in technology can cause senior citizens to reject convenient methods for managing finances. In-depth knowledge of improvements within technology related to the financial sector liberates individuals, regardless of age. Financial institutions grant customers access to various accounts from the comfort of their work areas or homes (Suntanto, 2012). Internet banking continues to transform the banking sector, as clients are able to customize and manage their bank accounts according to individual preferences (Tech-savvy, 2013). Technological advancements, such as the Internet and social media platforms, create opportunities for senior citizens to obtain these types of information, saving them from accumulating medical expenses incurred during consultations (Tech-savvy, 2013).
The collective case is to study senior citizens that do not use digital technology and computer programs of the older age groups. The age groups will compose of three diverse groups of 65-70, 70-75, and 75-80 years. A study by Sintonen and Immonen, (2013) showed the age groups have diversified needs regarding digital technology and computer programs. To obtain data, the study design will interview 15 seniors from different ethnic and economic backgrounds from the Metro Detroit area of Michigan. The collective case will determine the institutions and government bodies on how to deal with particular senior groups in acquiring technology use. Annear, (2014) states technology affects different age groups of the senior citizens in unlike ways. The study will observed most senior, 75-80 years is most likely to have less benefit compared to their counterparts (Annear, 2014). The seniors, 65-70, and 70-75 years will readily accept technology use as to learn computer skills that will aid them efficiently conduct their private lives (Annear, 2014).
Gadzheva, (2013) supported the idea but denoted the different age groups of the senior members also conceived dissimilar attitudes to the technology use. In his study, 12% of those aged 75 years and over accepted technology, 20% of those between 70 and 75 years received information technology while only 65% of those aged 65 to 70 years will be resistant to information technology (Gadzheva, 2013). Guo, (2013) states technology would only be adopted about the benefits the individual. The assorted age groups of the senior citizens showed similarity as majority of them find no technology benefit to their lives (Gadzheva, 2013). Other studies also denoted the elderly had impairments such as hearing that affected their use of modern devices such headsets. Finland, Lupsakko, Kautiainen, and Sulkava, (2005) found 15% of senior citizens aged 75 years and above afflicted with hearing defects. The lacked the expertise to use headsets designed to improve hearing while 5% of the older aged between 65 to 75 years afflicted with hearing defects lacked the knowledge (Gadzheva, 2013). Senior members who are 75 years, and above is likely to reject technology than, those between 65 to 75 years (Gadzheva, 2013).
Osman, Poul son, and Nicolle (2005) established the difference in age groups of the older persons in adopting technology. Those who are 65-70 years of age are more than willing to learn and use various simple models to acquire computer skills as compared to the individuals who are 70 years and above (Osman, Poul son, & Nicolle, 2005). Manufactures can then make models which are trouble-free since they can learn their use with ease rather than complex models, which would makes life difficult for them (Osman, Poul son, & Nicolle, 2005).
Contemporary studies also established that awareness differed among the various age groups of the senior citizens (Rashidi, Mihailidis, 2013; Greenhalgh et al., 2013). There search indicated that only 10% of the senior members who will be 75 year and above did not know about new models and existence of training facilities (Rashidi, Mihailidis, 2013). Senior citizens, 70 to 75 years is not aware of the digital technology and computer programs while 30% of the senior members who will be aged between 65 to 70 years would be knowledgeable about training and new models (Rashidi, Mihailidis, 2013).
Significance of the Study
Technology is constantly changing, and most people use some form of technology in their daily activities. Researchers have diverse opinions on the reasons senior citizens find it difficult to acquire computer skills. Suntanto, (2012) revealed 70% of the older generation is not willing to adapt or acquire knowledge on the use of computers, while only 25% are willing to learn computer skills (Suntanto, 2012). A considerable number of seniors do not know what devices are currently available and more than 55% are comfortable with their situation (Smith, 2012).
Wood, (2010) indicates senior citizens who have computer skills use the computer for useful purposes concerning health care. It contrast, the same research establishes younger people, 80% of whom have computer knowledge, do not make good use of computers (Wood, 2010). The study also suggests ways of which senior citizens accepts technology in their lives (Smith, 2012). Various models manufactured should suit the specific needs of this age group, and classes planned to accommodate senior citizens (Smith, 2012). Senior citizens can be encouraged to understand the importance of computers and incorporate technology in their lives (Wood, 2010).
Research requires postulation, and efficiency in data collection is essential for the success of a study. Qualitative methods prove the best choice for conducting research, because these methods allow for equality between the researcher and the participant (Scheibe & Reichelt, 2015). Because of the criteria of this type of research, respondents are more confident and open (Smith, 2012). Qualitative methods allow for direct participation and are necessary for the current study, to determine how senior citizens use computers to access services, such as social networking. The closer the two variables are, the more accurate the research is (Smith, 2012).
The study design will uses a collective case method as an essential tool for information collection. Remler and Van, (2011) established this is the only way to gather consistent data. The researcher also had the opportunity to provide correct interpretations based on the natural settings of the participants (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2011). Regec, (2011) observed senior citizens’ technology use should be monitored to make sure they understand and so they can optimize technology to increase their quality of life.
The research method consists of a collective case study and the subjects participated in structured interviews to ascertain their perspectives regarding technology use and barriers to technology use (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2011). The selection of participants includes 15 individuals over the age of 65-70, 70-75, and 75-80, comprised of both males and females. Seniors are more productive, efficient, and able to perform most tasks on their own without involving younger people. The senior population can saves money by obtaining computer skills and can benefit from services, such as online banking, because they do not have to stand in long lines at a physical bank (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2011). Seniors can also sign up for Medicare benefits and make change online, which is beneficial for their day-to-day care (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2011).
It is also imperative to consider the relative technical knowledge of older generations compared to that of younger people. This information serves, as a critical parameter in assessing the commitment senior’s exhibit toward technology. The overall attitude and desire to use technology for banking activities is a uniform pattern (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2011). Senior is time conscious and physically vulnerable to fatigue when using the traditional banking method. Adoption of online registrations and subsequent use of such applications is likely to encourage older generations to embrace technology, outside the limits of Medicare services and banking, and include online insurance services, notifications from various organizations for which they are members, and air travel bookings (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2011). The chosen sample size is representative of the overall perception of technology among the total population.
Questions arose regarding the benefits of using a sample of 15 senior citizens to represent the majority of the population. The state of Michigan has more than 300,000 citizens as revealed by the 2013 state population census, with a quarter of the citizens being senior citizens (Yu, Zo, Choi, & Ciganek, 2013). The number is large and the researcher cannot interact with every senior to assess each individual’s computer skills. Therefore, sampling is the only reliable method for data collection, and accurate information is only possible using a small sample size. Lupsakko, Kautiainen, and Sulkava, (2005) found researcher can spend more time with a small sample group to obtain accurate information. The budget allocation for this research will not allow a study of the entire population.
The research results are for the use of the government and other NGOs requiring accurate information. Remler and Van, (2011) explains how to achieve accuracy, the sample must be relatively small and simple methods of analysis must be used. The data collected should also be easy to analyze, using relevant statistical tools such as regression. Errors due to complex data are significantly minimized and such data can lead to false information and inaccurate recommendations (Yu, Zo, Choi, & Ciganek, 2013).
The research criterion uses the collective case studies. This research requires the researcher to observe the participants in their natural settings (Remler & Van Ryzin, 2011). The methods allow participants to provide a clear view of their level of computer skills and whether if they are able to adopt technology. The collective case study enabled the researcher to observe the participants fully as they interacted with technology and provided data on the willingness of older generations to learn computer skills. These methods are more comfortable to use and reveal the benefits they derive from the use of the computers. Such criterion provides a personal experience, which enables the researcher to understand the participants more accurately, and the detailed information provided difficult to obtain through either secondary research or a quantitative methodology. Remler and Van, (2011) found information obtained from individual responses or experiences is difficult to derive from quantitative data because participants are not willing to provide personal information for public consumption. The design provided the meanings of words and organized the key findings, allowing a detailed analysis to be completed. The report is then used to make interpretations and conclusions for how to help senior citizens gain computer skills.
One central factor will guide this research: the major determinant for technology use among senior citizens is a lack of sufficient training and exposure. Training services focus on younger generations and move at a faster, advanced pace. Senior citizens are unable to grasp the complexities of technology. Two descriptive questions formulated to supplement the central research question as stated below;
R1. What are the perceptive, beliefs and lived experience of the participants about how to use technological advancements?
R2. What are the perceptive, beliefs and lived experience can the government, and other interested parties implement to help increase senior citizens’ interest in technological advancements?
For the full incorporation of the study, participants responses is analyzed using the above questions to determine the necessity to support application of digital technology and computer programs in real-world situation. A well-coordinated collection can provide accurate predictions for other agencies to use (Remler & Van, 2011). The first research question will be based on the benefits those senior citizens gains by adopting technology. The second question will try to establish on policies implementations of the government and relevant institutions to enable the senior citizens adopt information technology. Analysis of the study uses and the data coded to determine various patterns using graphs and charts and to make interpretations (Remler & Van, 2011).
Contribution to Knowledge
The current research study relies on the fact that computer technology has been embedded in western society and the majority of people do not acknowledge computer technology is a relatively new development (Schillmeier & Domenech, 2012). The group composed of senior citizens (aged 65 and above) continuously grows and will increase from 20% of the population, in developed countries, to 32% by 2050 (Schillmeier & Domenech, 2012). How this group interacts with technological adaptions appears to have been overlooked (Schillmeier & Domenech, 2012). Understanding what gaps in computer knowledge exist in this group is beneficial as the number of senior citizens increases and technology continues to advance (Schillmeier & Domenech, 2012).
Despite the willingness of society to encourage seniors to become familiar with new technologies, they seem to be techno phobic and tend to feel uncomfortable being around computers (Pereira, 2011). Studies claim one major reason for this is an unwillingness to adopt technology and because computer skill levels vary from individual to individual, engineers and software developers do not seem to recognize (Pereira, 2011). Other sources claim result of declining physical abilities such as sensory perceptions, cognitive abilities, and physical functions, seniors’ ability to adapt to new technology also declines (Birren & Schaie, 2012).
The current research addresses the growing aging population in the United States, the increasing need for access to technology, and how government leadership believes there is a growing gap between the two (Gilly, 2012). Resistance to computer use by specific age segments of the consumer population adds further fuel to the computer literacy debate (Gilly, 2012). Defining the attitudes and perspectives of an aging population toward their understanding of technology can address fundamental problems. The collective case studies integrate methods to enlighten leadership and foster improvements in technology for aging populations (McMurtrey, 2011).
Increasing technological advancement, which surpasses the rate of technological familiarity in the aging population, is one major challenge (Cabrera & Malanowski, 2009). A significant technology acquisition time lag between the young generations and senior citizens exists (Cabrera & Malanowski, 2009). Conservative behavior, which is common among elderly consumers, creates significant challenges for embracing computer applications literacy (Cabrera & Malanowski, 2009). The collective case strategic leadership approach is critical to change perceptions and mobilize seniors to pursue computer literacy as the primary path to online services. The collective case role of leadership is paramount, as it boosts the target population to see the need for embracing modern technology in daily services (Cabrera & Malanowski, 2009). Corporate leaders and government authorities need to campaign to the elderly, to promote efficiency in service delivery achieved by offering user-friendly applications marketed to older populations.
The collective case studies require the researcher to spend time among the participants. More than 70% of senior citizens are not willing to embrace technology (Suntanto, 2012) and are so rigid that only 35% of them are willing to acquire computer skills (Summers & Summers, 2011). The researcher had definite apprehension regarding how training of seniors is feasible because of the usability of the computers involved (Suntanto, 2012). The Collective case study found that 65% of the participants are more resistance to adopting technology (Summers & Summers, 2011). The research further suggests the teaching methods used are not able to pass the relevant information onto senior citizens (Suntanto, 2012). Previous studies have determined how younger generations readily understood technology and diversely use computers in their daily lives, when compared to senior citizens (Smith, 2012).
Other studies employed a time scale to reveal how long senior citizens will be able to retain technology teachings. Rajarshi, Claire, and Raghav (2013) states younger citizens easily retain computer skills more than the aging population. The variant nature among senior citizens, they continue to lag behind in their ability to understand technological advancements and knowledge (Suntanto, 2012).
This section provides meanings for important words used throughout this dissertation. It simplifies the words so the reader can understand and integrate them with ease, making the study more reliable.
Senior citizens are the older members of society aged 65 -70, 70-75, 75-80 and above. They are mainly comprised of retired individuals who see no value in the latest technological trends (Campbell & Wabb, 2011). Research suggests this group concentrates more on family issues and takes control of family wealth. Encouraging them to become more computer literate, causing them to miss important issues on social networks.
Collective case study; the study will involve different cases. The cases would be different studies regarding the senior citizens use in technology with having a divergent view regarding the elder persons. Despite of the different sites and locations of the cases, the qualitative studies will scrutinize them as a collection (Regec, 2011). The cases will be instrumental to establish comparisons between different age groups of the elderly, benefits of information technology to senior citizens and difficulties they experience in the technology adoption.
Technology is the science of knowledge that practice to solve technical problems or to provide a guideline for the invention of various tools. It has developed over time, from the Stone Age to the current era, and currently includes daily used tools, such as desktops, laptops, and mobile phones (Lorence & Park, 2006). Studies have shown that, if used properly within society, it can solve many problems and make work easier.
The basic assumption of this study is senior citizens miss’s technology benefits because lack confidence in their ability to use technology and believe that technology irrelevant to their needs (McMurtrey, 2011). They then locked out on technological knowledge to obtain information and complete online transactions with ease. Researchers have identified this inability by observing seniors using technology, such as computers (McMurtrey, 2011). Computers make work easier and more efficient and enhance the ability of the senior citizens to interact with the outside world (Osman, Poulson, & Nicolle, 2005).
Another assumption relied on the participants’ involvement in the study to ensure reliability of the data collected. In this regard, the participants provide willing full implicit information without force. They also had the right, to refuse to answer the researcher questions, and given an opportunity to pull out of the study, if they become dissatisfied (Pulli, 2012). The study also assumed the data provided would remain confidential between the researcher and the participant, and both parties made fully aware of their responsibilities during the study (Pulli, 2012). Presumptions will be also made on the information provided as accurate, honest, and the members could provide evidence if needed (Gilly, 2012). For example, young and old participants specify the amount of time they will need to acquire technological knowledge.
The scope will consist of a sample of 15 senior members of the society. The participate knowledge about computer use and experienced barriers will be unknown (Pulli, 2012). Participants will undergo an interview process as the primary tool for data collection (Pulli, 2012). The study will attempt to examine the computer a skill on the older generation as is relates to technology. The study looks at the question of what portion of the population is willing to learn and enjoy the benefits and what methods of digital technology and computer programs (McMurtrey, 2011). The participants reside majorly from the Metro Detroit area of Michigan.
Every study usually requires some form of boundaries to ensure reservations of the collective case study. This study will involve 15 seniors from different ethnic and economic backgrounds from the Metro Detroit area of Michigan with whom 70% will be computer illiterate (Fojk, 2010). The research will be majority based on interviews with the participants. The information represents opinions, therefore if the participant is not honest, it cannot be measured (Fojk, 2010). If the data is analysis to make recommendations, then the outcome is false making the research irrelevant (Pereira, 2012)
The collective case study confines to the interview of 15 seniors from different ethnic and economic backgrounds. The research will be determines the benefits for the senior citizens to integrate computer use into social networking systems (Pereira, 2011). The research is also restricted to the various ways the senior citizens compared to the young lads to acquire the computer skills (Pereira, 2011). Tech-savvy, (2013) observes participants fear to embrace technology but the few who are literate uses it to improve their health standards by viewing the health details on the Internet. The research is restricted to Metro Detroit area of Michigan. The Method of research is also limited to qualitative study in collective case research. It involves the researcher to interact fully with the respondents. The interview will be the key tool used for data collection in the study (Remler & Van, 2011). The research will be objective to provide the knowledge.
Review of Relevant Scholarship
The current literature review includes a summary of living, well-structured interviews, phone call interviews, and video calls interviews using Skype. The researcher interviewed senior citizens aged 65 and above, which will be been mentioned. An advantage of using the interview method is to obtain the ability to verify the credibility of the respondent (Remler & Van, 2011). Secondary methods of data collection include searching Internet databases (ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar) and reading e-books, journals, and previous studies. The researcher ensured data collection methods are from credible sources to later be used and cited.
Past literature derived from secondary sources is subject to intense scrutiny because the information provided may not be adequate for explaining current trends in the quickly changing technology sector (Wright, Sparks, & Hair, 2012). It is also important to compare and contrast secondary sources of information in the literature review. Evaluations of the validity of secondary data strengthen the supporting evidence of resistance and perceptions of the aging population toward technology (Wright, Sparks, & Hair, 2012). Primary sources of data provided the best results for deducing current factors explain seniors’ perceptions toward online communication technology (Yu, Zo, Choi, & Ciganek, 2013). A blend of primary and secondary data provided more reliable facts, and figures to help close the information gap in this area. Accurate referencing is important for the development of a literature review for this subject (Wright, Sparks, & Hair, 2012).
Technological developments include major inventions in the modern era, especially computers and mobile phones. Senior citizens find it difficult to use or understand the applications of these devices (Regec, 2011). In fact, only three out of ten seniors are aware of the use, existence, or importance of computers (Regec, 2011). Other studies, such as the research provided by, Schillmeier and Domenech, (2012) shows the lack of information has been a major inhibiting factor for seniors to acquire technological knowledge. While the education methods used are not helpful for seniors because most are youth oriented, senior citizens are not doing anything to improve the situation, as observed by Lorence and Park (2006). Often, they resist the help offered to them, and in fact, only 30% or less of the older generation is willing to learn to use computers (Regec, 2011).
This collective case interacts with seniors and discovers their computers habits, and the associated barriers to technology use. A sample of 15 senior citizens interviewed using structured questions, to provide the data that research required. This method will be very useful because it involved the direct participation of the respondents and ensured the credibility of data collected. The government agencies use the findings to discover ways to help senior citizens become computer literate and the benefits they derive from using technology.
Learning is a lifelong process and keeps people active and excited by providing social interaction and intellectual stimulations. Access to information through the Internet is beneficial for the senior citizens because it encourages collaborations and opens new opportunities for interactions (Sherwani, 2009; Summers & Summers, 2011). The Collective case research process reflects the integration of data collected from the interviews of 15 subjects, who will provide information through a structured interview. The data reveal major themes related to the obstacles to effective use of computer technology faced by people over the age of 65-70, 70-75, and 75-80. The data extracted findings, in conjunction with information from current literature, as well studied from a collective case perspective on computer technology use in the aging population.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Chapter 2 discusses the broad topic, through analyses of previous arguments found in related studies and by examining four theories: Functionalism, Disengagement, Activity, and Continuity theories for senior citizens. Since the study topic connects senior citizens to technology, the literature review highlights the computer literacy found in this group, their health issues, and use of current mobile technology.
Primary and secondary sources of data compile the literature review. The primary sources of data will be used include interviews through Skype and one-on-one meetings. From these sources, the study obtains reliable, information, concerning the perceptions of senior citizens, toward technology. Secondary sources of information will be also useful, and for verifying data collected from primary sources (Birdsong & Freitas, 2012). Literature review is articles from newspapers and magazines, which analyzed different aspects of how the older senior generation reacts to new technologies (Choi & DiNitto, 2013).
Past research, documents also played a significant role (Choi & DiNitto, 2013).
The materials will be closely related to the issue addressed in this study will be exceptionally useful (Birdsong & Freitas, 2012). Relevant journals written on the issue of senior citizens and their ability to operate current technological devices provided views from various experts. The title searches included in this review were senior citizens, modern technology, elderly population, and adaptability of the population. The words served as search keys when looking for various types of information on the topic.
The histories and lifestyles that senior citizens have lived through form an important part of this literature review. Senior citizens divide into three age groups: 60–65, 66–70, 75-80 years of age. The five-year gap between these age groups is crucial to differentiate the characteristics of each group (Collins, Currie, & Bakken, 2012). Looking at the type of education these groups received, it is evident of the lifestyles during their youth will be entirely different from those today (Collins, Currie, & Bakken, 2012). School systems did not provide much reference or learning materials, as they do today (Farmer, 2014). For example, learning mostly depended on books and other written materials, whereas today, there are many online organizations and software that students depend on for education materials (Choi & DiNitto, 2013).
The issue of technological advancement is more relevant for modern times, and many changes began in the communications sector and the transportation industry (Birdsong & Freitas, 2012). Much has been written explaining these advancements, especially in telecommunication, and the information defines current times as a world of technological devices aimed at making every process quicker (Birdsong & Freitas, 2012). Therefore, the history of technological advancements is a key area to review for this research (Friedman & Friedman, 2014).
Extensive literature discusses how senior citizens attempt to adapt to current technologies (Swe & Huei, 2012). The senior citizens face numerous benefits when updating to technological skills, which are different from those of younger generations (Swe & Huei, 2012). Earlier studies have shown that these benefits are the reasons why over 50% of senior citizens should adapt to new technologies (Veloso & Guimarães, 2014).
Another type of literature is important here is the information from studies on the relationship between age and technology (Veloso & Guimarães, 2014). Most studies indicated the elderly are, in most cases, unwilling to adapt to technological changes, while younger generations are willing to update alongside technology (Veloso & Guimarães, 2014).
Elderly vs. middle age; A comparison of this two age groups in relation to technology and computer programs can be difficult to understand specifically for those who cannot clearly differentiate those people who are to be classified under the elderly group, and those for the middle age group (Neocleous, 2013). There is a slight age difference between these two sets. Most of the senior citizens are usually resistant to use these digital technology and computer programs, as the middle age struggle just to have the exact device they need to operate something (Lee, Chen, & Hewitt, 2011). The never care about what extra can one enjoyed from the devices after they have gotten what they want (Neves & Amaro, 2012).
The teenagers will always strive to be up-to-date with technology so they can enjoy the entertaining part of the technology (Neves & Amaro, 2012). For the senior members of the society, this is not true. Most of them will always work against these technological advancements as they see them as being unnecessary (Goldthorpe, 2014). The senior citizens further groups into either the 65-70 groups or 70-75 groups and 75-80 groups .The grouping further makes their adaptability vary. The most aged set has most of the resistances when it comes to introducing something new such as technology as compared to the 60-65 old groups of senior residents (Scheibe & Reichelt, 2015).
The first gap among the age group is 65 to 70 years vs. 70 to 75years: Both the groups believed to conform to the same narration of being technology ignorance. The two age groups of the top individuals showed some difference though. The former consisted of senior citizens who have just begun to enjoy their retirement benefits (Neves & Amaro, 2012). They have more knowledgeable to the society and would quickly adapt and understand the current requirement than the latter (Sintonen & Immonen, 2013). Therefore, those seniors who will be 65 to 70 years old are apt to update with technology advancements than the elderly who will be between 70 to 75years old (Sintonen & Immonen, 2013). In this circumstance, they will be less resistive to information technology than the other age groups (Sintonen & Immonen, 2013). The senior age group of 65 to 70 will quickly grasp actions as to training and gaining computer skills (Sintonen & Immonen, 2013).
Another gap is those seniors between 65 to 70years vs. 75 to 80 years: the two senior age groups form the age group that make the most of their old age periods (Gadzheva, 2013). But there existed a ten year age gap between them, so group between 65 to 70 years will be juniors in this regard (Gadzheva, 2013). The set of 75 to 80 years suggested meaning to life than their counterparts (Charmonman, Sookpreedee, & Patthamasoot, 2014). The latter experiences, less information technology, and computer programs due to the primitive age of the time of their existence (Gadzheva, 2013). They schooled at a time when no technology was available to them and to make it worse, their working period as well observed the same features. They found no meaning to the benefits of information technology than the age group of 65 to 70 years (Charmonman, et al., 2014). The age gap between them is so vast that the perception regarding information technology is sundried. Those individuals who were between 75 to 80 years showed more resistance to digital technology and computer programs discovered that it is relatively hard to accept the technology (Charmonman et al., 2014). Actions such as training will be futile and even if they will be to use technology then it is in observations of their health related matters (Charmonman et al., 2014). The age group between 65 to 70 years indicated to use technology in wide areas, which included but not limited to health-related issues, bank statements and to obtain their retirement benefits (Guo, Sun, Wang, Peng, & Yan, 2013). The group expected to be less resistance towards technology adoption and computer skills.
Finally is the gap between 70 to 75 years vs. 75 to 80 years: The two age gaps showed no major difference as they both viewed their life to be at the pinnacle of their old age. Peek, (2014) indicated they were more concerned with health-related matters regarding issues and barely found importance of technology. The clustered lived under the fear of not gaining knowledge making them to be opposition towards technology adoption and learning of computer skills (Farmer, 2014). Unless special features of technology devices made that favor them, they may never accept technology at all (Farmer, 2014). Lastly, another interesting age gap is that of comparing the senior residents and the infants. Both of these sets have difficulties in adapting to technology. However, children have the difficulty of using the innovations though they are obsessed with trying to know the gadget application (Farmer, 2014).
When considering how seniors can quickly adapt to technological issues, computer literacy is crucial (Farmer, 2014). The ability of an individual to use computers determines if a person is able to adapt swiftly to changing technology (Bowen, 2012). Most senior citizens are unable to set up a computer, and it becomes extremely difficult for many seniors to accept technological changes (Bowen, 2012). Seniors also have difficulty downloading the necessary apps needed for various activities that are currently popular, and knows neither their usage nor where to access the applications (Bowen, 2012). How to use various search engines is another issue for many senior citizens, who are interested in knowing some terms but often give up when they are unable to access or use search engines properly (Malec-Rawiński, 2014).
Using email is also difficult for seniors, especially when they are expected to send an email to multiple email addresses, which can cause them to stop using email (Smith, 2012). Attaching files and other necessary processes associated with emailing may add to the difficulty senior’s face when attempting to communicate in this way (Bowen, 2012). Clearly, the problem of computer literacy accounts for some of the reasons seniors give for not adapting to new technologies (Goldthorpe, 2014).
Senior Citizens’ Health
Before questioning the ability of senior citizens to adapt to technological innovations, it is crucial to address the health conditions of this age group (Hung & Yeng, 2012). Some health issues may contribute to resistance toward using technology. Seniors are more prone to falling sick and likely to face conditions such as high blood pressure and issues with sugar levels (Xie, 2012). Vision impairment is another crucial element to consider. Seniors often begin to experience poor eyesight, which can create difficulty when trying to view technological devices (Duwenkamp, Ludwig, & Wolf, 2012).
Another restricting factor is the mental state of older seniors, which may not allow them to operate some devices (Xie, 2012). As people age, it is more likely their mental state becomes questionable, and because of this, many seniors avoid technology and simply cannot adapt (Bowen, 2012). Alzheimer’s disease is a medical condition mainly affects senior citizens (Xie, 2012). The disease involves many symptoms that affect a person’s personality and energy level, as well as causing memory loss (Xie, 2012). Therefore, it can be hard to trust a person with Alzheimer’s with a device requires concentration to operate it (Duwenkamp, Ludwig, & Wolf, 2012). The disease also causes verbal, cognitive, and coordination issues, which can lead to difficulties and restricting an individual from operating devices (Duwenkamp, Ludwig, & Wolf, 2012). Health issues of senior citizens are determining factors for their adaptability to use new technology (Smith, 2012).
Mobile technology is a relatively new platform that enables easy movement of facilities and instant communication even when the participating parties are miles away from each other (Swe & Huei, 2012). IPhone and Android devices are among the latest inventions in the mobile phone industry (Manafo & Wong, 2012). The two come with features enable access to various services right from an individual’s phone, eliminating physically moving from point to point (Manafo & Wong, 2012). The use of these devices is not necessarily easy and requires the user to have wider knowledge on how to operate them (Matellán-Olivera, 2014). Obtaining these skills is a challenge for most seniors because they are usually unwilling to learn new technology (Scheibe & Reichelt, 2015).
The invention of the Internet has changed the world, and through the Internet, people on different continents can communicate using social platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Skype (Gomes, Duarte, Coelho, & Matos, 2014). Skype enables people to hold online meetings, no matter where participants are located (Manafo & Wong, 2012). This locks out many seniors in this area because they find it difficult to learn how to operate accounts on these platforms (Goldthorpe, 2014). The use of Google Maps and navigation is another recent invention associated with mobile technology (Manafo & Wong, 2012). Through Google Maps, it is easy for a person to locate a destination when walking or driving (Bowen, 2012). Mobile services such as Mobile Health are another useful element of mobile technology, which enables patients to reach medical technicians easily without necessarily visiting a medical center, saving time and money (Manafo & Wong, 2012). Operating these applications remains a challenge for most senior citizens, mainly due to their resistance to learning how to do so (Veloso & Guimarães, 2014).
Economic policy is one area where the government has enacted laws relevant to the welfare of seniors (Bowen, 2012). The amount of levy seniors pays on related technology and computer programs of the seniors have reduced by 30% (Goldthorpe, 2014). Because seniors can access the new technologies, it is necessary to find ways of motivating them to purchase the relevant computer programs (Goldthorpe, 2014). Other laws and regulations enacted by the government include a requirement for seniors’ citizens to have an intensive training on technology literacy (Collins, Currie, & Bakken, 2012). This move aims to ensure seniors are more knowledgeable in various computer programs (Bowen, 2012). Free training at colleges and special support of the senior citizens is another strategy encouraged by Goldthorpe (2014) which discusses good time is allocated to the seniors for learning computer skills.
Online banking is another technology enables a person to manage his or her cash, easily and freely, without having to visit a bank (Neeyl, 2014). Unfortunately, online banking has made it easier for criminals to persuade seniors to give out online banking details (Neeyl, 2014). The government has created regulations that require banks to provide education for seniors, concerning online business, to ensure the safety of their income (Lee, Chen, & Hewitt, 2011).
Under this theory, every component of society will play an assigned role. The theory claims, there to be order in society, each part must act within the functions assigned to them (Birdsong & Freitas, 2012). There exists stability in society only when this function performed by each part of the community succeeds. According to this theory, any member of the community, including seniors, have some roles to play for society to remain the same (Hanson, 2012). Therefore, to align with this theory, seniors must become fluent in current technologies, though, this theory also allows for reduced participation by seniors (Veloso & Guimarães, 2014).
b) Disengagement Theory
In the disengagement theory, the aging process interferes with relationships between different parts of society (Duwenkamp, Ludwig, & Wolf, 2012). The theory supports the fact the participation of members reduces as they age and argues this is an important process because senior citizens ought to be given space to concentrate on completing their lives (Neocleous, 2013). At this end stages, they should be given time to prepare for death (Neocleous, 2013). It is believed disengagement is necessary for society because it creates a real avenue of transition from the old generation to the new generation. According to this theory, there would be no need for encouraging seniors to learn new technology (Johnson & Mutchler, 2014).
c) Activity Theory
Activity theory focuses on the happiness of elderly people and argues older generation is made happy by staying active (Behaghel, Caroli, & Roger, 2014). They should be mentally and physically active to remain a happy segment of society. The best way of doing this is by encouraging seniors to continue interacting with other and maintaining a social life (Neocleous, 2013). This would include embracing new technologies that would help them to do this (Perkins & LaMartin, 2012).
d) Continuity Theory
In this theory, senior members of society are expected to maintain all the activities they had been doing in their younger years (Vacha-Haase, Hill, & Bermingham, 2012). They should maintain the same relationships and behaviors. This theory faces criticism because human beings are expected to grow out of some things as they age (Vacha-Haase, Hill, & Bermingham, 2012).
This literature review will looked at various arguments made by studies related to the issue of senior citizens being reluctant to adopt new technologies. One of major cause for this has an unwillingness to adapt, while computer literacy and the health of senior citizens are two crucial factors that influence how senior members of society perceive technology. Computer illiteracy makes it much harder for seniors unfamiliar with technology to adapt to new advancements. Besides an unwillingness to adapt, health complications can also affect seniors’ use of technology. However, with the various useful mobile applications and government regulations, it has become possible to transition seniors into the use of new technologies.
The issue of senior citizens being resistant to adopting new ways has been a major setback for technological development in societies. This study will highlight these issues, while looking at various related theories. The literature review will analyze a number of studies, which are important for the discussion of senior citizens and technology. The different theories will be reviewed as the perspectives of many scholars.
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
For a period, numerous learning has developed a response towards the senior use of information technology. The collective case studies tries to evaluate senior citizens when it comes to technology are not up to the tasked. The study examines initiatives, benefits and the possible effects senior citizens will be bound to gain by acquiring information technology. It selects a random sample of 15 senior members consisting of different ethnic and economic backgrounds from Metro Detroit area of Michigan who consisted of 65 years and above. Chapter 1 therefore, opens up an epigrammatic argument on senior citizens usage of information technology, insertion of measures that the public uses and technological world to enable the senior members to become computer literate.
Chapter 2 provides the literature review of the study available for a more understanding of the study for the integration of the research question. It gives more insights into other studies by elaborating on issues related to the senior citizens reluctant to adopt information technology. The two chapters, therefore, introduces chapter 3, which is centered on methods of research that will be used to collect the data. Chapter 3 examines the appropriateness of the design and research methods by indicating the benefits and impacts of the senior citizens adopting information technology. The research questions elaborate well while data collection criteria are flexible as to what suits the study best to obtain information from the respondent. The population and the study sample will form the focal point of data collection centered in the Metro Detroit area of Michigan. Chapter 3 also draws attention to instrumentation, confirmability, transferability, and dependability, which formed areas of data validity of the learning and finally evaluates the methods of data analysis of the study.
Research method and design appropriateness
Quantitative and qualitative studies are not mutually exclusive even though they can generate information regardless of the approach used (Cook & Polgar, 2014). In this collective case study, the qualitative design is the most appropriate intend to obtain data (Cook & Polgar, 2014). Qualitative research generates ideas as to investigate and at what point they considered them necessary in the analysis (Heinz et al., 2013). It focuses on understanding the study holistically. The criteria majors on the participants will be required for the study of senior citizens is not up to the task when it comes to technology and computer programs (Cook & Polgar, 2014).
In qualitative research, the research is always bendable and in most cases familiar. The researcher can always shift whenever necessary that suits the study to obtain data, which is quite the contrary to the quantitative research. Qualitative study does not require the researcher to know the research question prior to the study, but will formulate them as the study progress with a relatively reduced sample size that suits studies as to those with significant population (Cook & Polgar, 2014). The same study observed that in depth analysis becomes possible only by collecting multiple data that is solitary possible with a qualitative approach. The advance, therefore, provides a feedback of explanatory that leads to hypothesis through a particular participant observation. To such criterion and in this regard, it suits Collective case studies research that uses the study of the senior citizens use of information technology.
The study of qualitative ethnography design tries to investigate the artistic views of what individuals hold into their mind. The study of senior citizens on the use of information technology tries to examine of what the benefits does the elderly have regarding technology use. The benefits on how it will affect their livelihood, which requires direct participant interaction in the researcher. With the ethnography design, the researcher will have firsthand information and can provide for accurate interpretation while recording data for themselves. The study of the senior citizens when it comes to technology is therefore appropriate with the qualitative collective case study.
The study of collective case, involve immersing yourself among the participants to obtain facts that are a qualitative way of data collection. Page (2013), establishes the relationship between various variables that provides for multiple data required for a qualitative study. This relationship forms patterns that made the criteria suitable phenomena for the study of senior citizens, as the different age groups adopt and integrate technology advancements. The researcher is a participant observer who spends most the time with the member with diverse culture and behavior. The researcher must adopt or be flexible towards the norms of a particular group if he/she is to obtain accurate information and provide an excellent interpretation of the observed phenomenon (Waycott et al., 2013). The flexibility is only possible with collective case under qualitative research, another proof of the research method and its appropriateness.
The Collective case studies qualitative study design guides by the central research question: The major factor is the lack of sufficient training and exposure. Training services focus on the younger generation and moves at a faster-advanced pace. Senior citizens are unable to grasp the complexities of technology. The central question analyzes the senior citizens holistically and majorly focuses on the training behaviors that make the seniors adopt technology use. The question will be open, and the participants will respond as they wish. To help understand the study in a complete manner, the principle question will be supported by two descriptive issues are more specific as they tend to achieve a particular outcome.
The first descriptive question examined the possible benefits of technology to the senior citizens. The question tries to found on the importance of technology to the population. As Page (2013) showed, establishing the benefits of a product has high chances of 70% to influence the product use by the desired users. For technology acceptance, it is important for earlier indication of benefits to senior citizens. Stojmenova, Debevc, Zebec, and Imperl (2013) showed that staying socially connected is imperative to any healthy living body. Use of technology devices as Skype and other information channels like emails increased social interactions of the senior citizens by 35% percent. The study observed them to be in loneliness and experienced less visiting times by their relatives. Increasing their social interactions motivates the senior citizens to use information technology.
According to Waycott, (2013) benefits of safety are significant to the motivation for the senior citizens to be technology literate. Waycott, (2013) stated that up to 90% of the aged individuals would like to be safety in their homes. Due to their poor health conditions and the constant spending of their times alone at the residential places, adopting new ways of technology could help them to be secure by dialing special emergency responses (Waycott, 2013). According to Silveira, Daniel, Casati, and Bruin, (2013), they noted that it was possible to track down the location more quickly of the senior citizens so that the relevant persons could respond to any emergency. The two studies concludes that by making the seniors safety a concern, the senior citizens will have more benefits and would be encouraged to use technology.
Cook and Polgar, (2014), also observed the benefits of technology to senior citizens. They observed that technology was good for exercise and health management for the elderly. As the top individuals play, games with the Smartphone’s or computers, their bodies are at least moving and their memory kept in a good shape that is a good exercise experience. In technology, the old persons are also capable to monitor their health through the Internet or manage their drug that reduces errors. In this regard, the senior citizens would be more than willing to accept technology into their lives as the benefits that accrue to them is quite numerous.
The second supportive descriptive question is to find out on how various stakeholders are involved in the lives of the senior citizens can have useful strategies to enable the senior citizens to adopt technology use. For an excellent implementation of the devices, then proper policies must be in place that initiates the urge for the seniors to develop technology use (Page, 2013). The elders give less value to the technology as they rarely dissociate from the devices. A motivational strategy by both the government and other institutions must exist if the senior citizens are to use the technology and acquire computer skills (Silveira, Daniel, Casati, and Bruin, 2013).
Parker, Jessel, Richardson (2013) observed the government can have influence senior citizens accepting technology. They can provide easier health care practiced by health care by practitioners so that senior citizens can easily access via their mobile or computer devices. As the health care is paramount to the seniors just like any other citizen, they would be able to use technology more frequently will eventually translate into a norm. The same research also established that the state could influence the economy to offer relatively affordable prices to the senior citizens. To achieve this, they have to lower taxes on those technology devices meant for senior members so that they can quickly access them. The seniors will be encouraged and will purchase the technology devices.
Cabrera and Malanowski, (2009) stated information for active aging observed institutions also have a role in the senior participation in the use of informatics. The relevant manufacturers must come with easier models that are simple to use if the senior citizens are to be actively involved in technology use. The study observed that an invention like simple real-time teleconferencing facilitated communication in diverse places. This will make the seniors converse more frequently with their loved ones in distant places. The old individuals would then find the desire to use information technology willingly. Campbell and Wabb, (2011) about the elderly showed, those institutions that take care of the senior members should encourage technology behavior that includes communication, health monitoring so that the seniors be aware the modern trends in the modern living lives. The old generation will be motivated more as they will view technology as their lives depend on it.
The two descriptive questions summarizes as those questions that would provide outcome as to the benefits and measures various institutions and government can implement to make senior citizens become technology literate and there illustration is as shown below;
R1. What are the perceptive, beliefs and lived experience of the participants about how to use technological advancements?
R2. What are the perceptive, beliefs and lived experience can the government, and other interested parties implement to help increase senior citizens’ interest in technological advancements?
Construction of the collective case studies is through a thoughtful ideas and opinion that senior citizens are not up to date when it comes to technology and computer programs. They find it relatively hard to integrate the use of technology advancements. The study centers in the Metro Detroit area of Michigan. The city is located in Southeast of Michigan and comprises of approximately 3 to 4 million people with a geographical area of 3.5km2 according to the surveys done in 2012 (Waycott, 2013).
The study will use a random sample of 15 senior members consisting of different ethnic and economic backgrounds from Metro Detroit area of Michigan. The participants will be senior citizens 65years of age and above of both the genders. The research though would be restricted to the samples to the citizens of the Metro Detroit area of Michigan. The participants will answer the research questions as will be presented in the structured interview, and the response will be voluntary.
The collective case study design will used random sample of 15 senior citizens from different ethnic and economic backgrounds whom would be 65 years of age and above while incorporating both female and female citizens. With a random sample, it will be possible that the participants will have an equal chance in the study (Waycott, 2013). The methodology eliminated the elements of biased in the research. With a random sample, it would be easier to collect data and analyses as it is small that suit the researchers. The selected participants though will be only limited to the resident of Metro Detroit area of Michigan. The random sample executed is superlative for the target population. The sample provides leaflets that explained the study objective and their role in the entire research. The participant receives two leaflets to spread to some of their society members. The participants then assign the agreement forms to participate, which provides their security. The agreement will bind both parties to the study and seals the identification of the respondents.
The researcher would then educate and enlighten the respondents of the study that would provide them with more awareness. The participant familiarizes themselves with unstructured interviews so that they familiarize themselves with how to answer questions and be confident about the study. The criteria then followed by structured interviews that would be the essential data collection method. To enhance reliability and accuracy, the researcher would make notes to establish the consistency of the data collected.
Informed consent and confidentiality
According to Silveira, Daniel, Casati, and Bruin, (2013) it is an ethical norm, which is obliged to the researcher to provide information as the roles of the different variables in the study, the risk involved and any expectations of the participants outlined. The informants will be provided with leaflets provided a detailed explanation as to the study requirement and will be voluntarily made to participate in the research while any forceful aggression pertaining to withdrawal is not necessary. The participants though knows of the records that the researcher would make and any follow up thereafter in case there is need to obtain more data or to seek clarification. The information they provide will be to be their own approval without any force and could make change, as participation is voluntary.
Anonymity ensured confidentiality that did not connect the participants to the research outcome. Stojmenova, Debevc, Zebec and Imperl, (2013) in qualitative research, proposed the use of unique codes either in alphabets or numerical to represent the participants so that the anonymity of the respondent is guaranteed. The collective case will provide unique codes to the participants that help hide their identity. The will code made certain that no names, survey question, and ranks held by participants is made public. The codes will conceal the identity of the geographical location of the participants. The research outcome is also to remain with the researcher and never made communal. To enhance further security, the data kept can only authorized personnel can access them protecting all the participants from this study.
The collective case is based in Metro Detroit area of Michigan located in northwest of the city. According to the population census of 2013, by the United States, the region had approximately 4,296,250 citizens (Waycott, 2013). Of the available persons in the area, 25% will be senior members of the population and a further 40% will be persons aged 18 years and over (Waycott, 2013). Indeed, the numbers of the elderly will be on the rise and could be 40% of the members’ by 2030 (Waycott, 2013). A sample of 15 senior citizens selection from the region in the city and data collected by a face-to-face interview (Waycott, 2013).
The leaflets provided to the selected participants obtained research details so that they could be aware of the study requirement. Signaling their intent to participate in the study is by signing the agreement forms. For an ethnography study, both parties must be willing and ready to take part to obtain accurate and reliable data (Silveira, Daniel, Casati, & Bruin, 2013). The data collection then commenced with the participants providing their ideas in unfettered manner of the general research question, the major factor is the lack of sufficient training and exposure. Training services focus on the younger generation and moves at a faster-advanced pace. Senior citizens are unable to grasp the complexities pertaining to technology. The researcher will introduced structured interview questions regarding the descriptive questions. The structured queries guide the research to achieve its objectives. The researcher then recorded all the data provided by the participants. Through records, the researcher can ensured that information is stored in its original form so that it could be reliable.
The researcher takes notes from the field by recording in the booklets provided to them. With the field note, the researcher will be able to record extra information as to what constitute meaning from the field that that could help to interpret the data provided by the participants. The booklets as well acted as the backup in case the recording devices failed to function or could not capture enough information due to limited of memory. The researcher ensured that all information will be collected provides a wide view of analysis.
The senior citizens are not up to date with the technology and computer programs; this collective case study will involve analytical and exploratory research. The instrumentation used in the study uses qualitative methods to collect data. The criterion allowed us to triangulate the methods to provide insights into the study. Triangulation employs compound data sources in a research that the researcher can have a clear understanding of the study (Page, 2014). According to the study conducted by Silveira, Daniel, Casati, and Bruin of (2013) establishes that one method can never provide and convey the reality of a phenomenon. Morris et al. (2013) observed consistency is needed in a study and is only possible via triangulation that analyzes various sources of data that credibility and validity are assured. Page, (2014) suggests to obtain insights into the information will be collected; will always be important to have divergent data sources.
The collective case study of senior citizens and technology advancements, make use of mutually the qualitative studies. The study uses qualitative measures, where the only variable will be the age of the senior citizens. The researcher will observe the senior members as they use the technology on a regular basis while conducting interviews with different age groups as they try to adopt digital technology and computer programs. Findings from surveys that involved structured interviews that enable the records for an auxiliary analysis supplements the study (Graffigna, Barello, Wiederhold, Bosio, & Riva, 2013).
Credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability
The four principle are in depth that endow with validity and reliable of the research outcome and is a source of developing trustworthiness of the study (Morris et al., 2013). Braun, (2013) scrutinizes any sample, that uses the study should be able to provide data, which is accurate. Credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability provide for the authority of the research outcome and are an essential component of the Collective case study of the senior citizens use of technology advancements.
The data collected necessity is to be believable and credible for the learning acceptance or used for analysis from the standpoint of the participant observer (Van, Lamoth, Stegenga, Verkerke, & Postema, 2013). It is because, in a qualitative study, the objective is to get a clear view of the collective case through the participants own observations. Since they have direct contacts with the respondents, the participants are the only persons who can provide a legitimate judgment on the results obtained (Graffigna, Barello, Wiederhold, Bosio, & Riva, 2013). Under qualitative research, the credibility is the internal validity of the study. The collective case is to determine the causality between the independent variable and dependent variable that would help to form a strong statement of the research. The independent variable, which in our case is the senior citizens while the dependent is the technology and computer program use that formed the question of the research. Variables as the age do not exist so as not to influence the outcome of the study.
Transferability and dependability
Transferability is the transfer outcome of any qualitative research. It is possible to generalize or transfer them to other settings or applied in other contexts of other studies (Rashidi & Mihailidis, 2013). As many observers like Page, (2014) states generalization is possible in a qualitative study by the researcher himself. It is because they understand the study better as they are involved in the entire research methodology and can interpret the research with most accuracy. For the ethnography study of the senior citizens and technology, we carried a survey of a pilot study before beginning the research and compared the outcome with the results. High correlation meant the result is transferable while little relationship showed non-conformity to the hypothesis. The outcome had a strong relationship with the final study. Other studies can make use of the observations for conclusions.
Dependability is the basis as to what scope is the research data replicable or repeated to obtain the same information. Chaudhuri, Thompson, and Demiris, (2014) observes that for the study to be fully accepted, and then the research outcome should be the equivalent in case another investigator is to conduct the study under the same phenomena. A study by Rashidi and Mihailidis, (2013) contradicts this observation. They argue that by, measuring twice we are doing two different studies and under no circumstance would the same information be obtained (Rashidi & Mihailidis, 2013). In the collective case study of the senior citizens though, specific questions required unique response from the participants. It ensured information consistency across the participants. As the participant observed, explicit observations noted would ensure reliability of the data. Correct interpretations will be consequently possible that ensured the collective case study of the participant observation would be accurate. Researcher and officials will have more trust in the research and can use the information to make predictions and interpolations in various settings under the same survey.
Portet, (2013) identifies conformability as the crucial component of developing trust with any research outcome. Conformability refers to the corroborated of the study as it helps to compare and confirm other studies. The collective case study used two major criterions to strengthen the observations. The study employed the check recheck procedure during the study to determine any divergent from other studies. In the second criteria, a method that is encouraged by Parker, Jessel, Richardson, and Reid, (2013) established an outline of all the negative thoughts that contradicts the pre observations. The collective case study also will conducted a data audit that describes data collection and analysis that develops an opinion as to any latent that might distort the research or make it biased against previous researchers.
The data analysis is in line with significance relevance to the study. According to Cook and Polgar, (2014) a research study should be conforming to the routine of adequacy that provides for statistical significance to the researcher. It allows for practicability of the data collected (Waycott et al., 2013). The analysis involved various steps. Step 1: involved recording of the data provided by the participants and taking of notes by the researcher. Step2: the stage suggested grouping the data to find similarities and differences of the information. This enabled establish relationships of the information provided by the different participants. Step 3: The recorded information and notes taken by the researcher given to the audience to familiarize them with the research outcome. Step 4: Comprised of identifying meanings of words, phrases used by the participants, and breaking them into simpler purposes for easier understanding and interpretation of the study.
The technology expert who would be available will interpret those that provided difficulty in meaning. Step 5: involved the use of charts and diagrams to identify patterns of the study for correlation and interpretation to be established. The final step will be the generalization of the research outcome to provide for applications of the senior citizens use of information technology advancements. After analysis, the data would then be stored in a safe place where only sanctioned human resources can access them and for future references (Waycott et al., 2013).
The collective case studies bases on how senior citizens are not to the task when it comes to technology and computer programs. The purpose will be to establish the acceptance and benefits of the various age groups of the senior citizens to the use of technology advancements. The chapter is limited to research questions, population, design, study sample, instrumentation, credibility, transferability, conformability, dependability, and data analysis. The next chapter: Chapter 4 provides for presentation of the outcome of chapter 3.
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