Answer 5 questions out of the following 15 questions and be sure to answer all parts of each multi-part question. Be sure to answer each question comprehensively and provide sufficient and substantive details, breadth, and depth. Your responses must demonstrate critical thinking and analysis as well as a substantive understanding and depth of knowledge of the subject matter. Overly brief and truncated responses will not be suitable.1. Certainty, severity, and celerity are the key elements of deterrence theory. Can crime be reduced by making the prescribed punishment so certain and severe that a rational individual would be deterred from committing criminal acts? Explain why or why not using specific criminological theories for support. Moreover, address how plea bargaining in criminal justice counters the premise of deterrence theory.2. Should social scientists continue investigating and promoting biological causes of criminal behavior as promoted by major contributors to biological positivism such as Cesare Lombroso regarded by some as the father of criminology? Provide examples of past biological causes and explain why such past research could be validly criticized on the grounds that it promotes racist, sexist, or class-based stereotypes of criminals.3. Conceptually, social learning theory has been applied to the fields of sociology, psychology, criminal justice, and criminology to explain how criminal values, ideas, techniques, and expressions are transmitted from one individual to another. Provide an in-depth and comprehensive overview of social learning theory and also provide a real-life example.4. Differential association theory, as developed by Sutherland, is a learning theory that concentrates on one’s associates and the normative definition. Thoroughly explain differential association theory and provide a detailed real-life example of the theory.5. Learning theorists believe that deviant behavior can be eliminated or modified by taking away the reward of the behavior, increasing the negative consequences of the behavior, or changing the balance of reward/punishment for the behavior. Do you agree or disagree with the beliefs of learning theorists? Fully and comprehensively explain your reason for agreement or disagreement.6. Labeling theorists seek to understand what transpires after an individual is identified for committing a criminal act and society labels the offender. This approach differs from the view of choice, biological predisposition, psychological factors, social learning factors, and societal bond and control theories, which seek to explain the first offense and any subsequent criminal acts. Therefore, is labeling theory a true theory? Defend your answer and include specific elements of labeling theory.7. Anomie was coined by sociologist Durkheim and first applied to French society in the examination of rates of suicide. The concept of anomie was first applied in the United States by Merton in an effort to describe adaptations in behavior, and the interaction between legitimate and illegitimate means. Compare and contrast Durkheim and Merton in their concepts and applications of anomie.8. Which is more important in American society, money or status? Which criminological theorist identified in this course best explains and supports your answer? In addition to identifying the theorist you must provide details of the theory in support of your answer.9. Agnew has advanced the anomie/strain theory with his General Strain Theory. Fully explain Agnew’s mixture of these theories. Additionally, provide real life applications of each theory.10. Assuming conflict theory is correct provide the details of two distinct crimes that you believe support the conflict theory. In addition, identify and explain two federal or state criminal laws that you think have been passed to keep the rich and powerful in control of American society.11. If capitalism is the cause of crime, how do you explain crime in a socialist society?12. What examples of changes in laws and in the criminal justice system can you think of that have been made to address the needs and concerns of women? Provide a minimum of two examples and give details.13. Assuming conflict theory is true, fully explain what kind of significant (multiple) public policy changes could be implemented to reduce class inequality?14. Routine activity theories look at people, both offenders and victims, and their routines. As a result, some of the blame in a criminal incident may be placed on the victim. Is placing blame on the victim just and justifiable or unjust and unjustifiable? Explain the position you take. Is a victim ever responsible, or partly responsible, for his or her own victimization?15. Fully explain each of Hirschi’s four elements of social bonding. How does his social bonding theory differ from his self-control theory?
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