C1. Consider sea walls as a shore protection method.
a) Using a sketch explain what these are AND discuss how they are supposed to work
b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of this form of shore “protection”?
c) Under what circumstances would the use of this shore protection method be appropriate? EXPLAIN.
C2. You have a summer house along the shoreline. During the summer, when you are in residence, there is a nice, wide beach, so you are not worried about a storm damaging your house. a) If you were to visit your home during the winter, you would probably see some things that should cause you to become very worried. What might they be? b) What happened to the beach? c) Describe the condi¬tions in summer and in winter. AND explain the reasons for the differences. Use sketches to illustrate your an¬swer).
C3. You read Orrin H. Pilkey’s article on coastal hazard engineering.
a) Pilkey’s overall conclusion is that “doing nothing” is the best course of “action”. On what does he base this recommendation?
b) Do you agree with Pilkey’s conclusion that it is better to “do noth¬ing” in regards to shoreline erosion? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER.
c) Regardless of your answer in part b, do you think it is possible to implement Pilkey’s recommendation? If not, what is possible to do about the problem of shoreline erosion? EXPLAIN YOUR AN¬SWER.
F1. Consider the hydrograph below
a) ON THE HYDROGRAPH show how the curve might look (for a similar storm) if we were to urbanize this watershed.
b) Provide an explanation for EACH of the changes that you made in the curve (i.e. what was the factor that caused the change and how did it do it)..
F2. The following equations describe various aspects of runoff and stream flow:
The Basic Flow Equation
Q = V (wd)
The Manning Equation
V = 1.49/n R2/3S1/2
NOW consider channelization as a flood control method and USING SKETCHES AND THE ABOVE EQUATIONS (as appropriate-some might not be appropriate!) answer the following questions.
a) Explain what channelization is and how it is sup¬posed to work (use sketches and equations to help with your answer).
b) Explain the negative consequences of channelization and dis¬cuss the reasons for these consequences, again using sketches/equations as appropriate..
F3 We decide to modify the human system to lessen the hazard by prohibiting hazardous develop¬ment on the flood plain. What land uses would you prohibit AND what land uses would you permit? EXPLAIN
III. Waste Disposal/Water/Mineral Resources
W1. We said that in dealing with our municipal solid waste problem, we still have only two choices : burial and incineration.
a) Why can’t recycling completely “solve” the problem?
b) Do you think that we will be able to get along without landfills in the future? Explain your an¬swer.
W2. Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of surface and ground water as sources of water supply.
W3. Discuss how petroleum is formed (i.e. geologically). Use sketches as appropriate.
W4. Consider ground water mining (HINT: Your book talks about this in connection with some aquifers in the High Plains).
a) EXPLAIN what this is and how it comes about.
b) Name a place where (BESIDES the High Plains) this is going on.
c) Discuss some of the reasons for ground water mining (i.e. why do we do it). Then discuss, specifically, the problems that it is causing in the High Plains. Finally, discuss some of the solutions we might have to consider in dealing with these problems (again on the High Plains).
d). Explain what happens when we withdraw ground water from a coastal aquifer like that on Long Island. LIST some possible solutions to this problem AND discuss which you would prefer and why.
W5. We have discovered a valuable deposit of copper in the form of the mineral chalcopyrite.
a) EXPLAIN the difference between a deposit and an ore.
b) We have evaluated the deposit and find that it is economically viable to mine. The deposit is such that we can use either surface or underground mining to extract the resource. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. Use diagrams as appropriate to assist you in answering.
c) One of the problems encountered when mining deposits that contain sulfide minerals (such as chalcopyrite or pyrite) is acid mine drainage. Explain what this is, discuss the mechanism(s) involved in generating it, and discuss some of the environmental problems that it may cause.
IV. Mass Wasting
M1. Consider soil creep.
a) Discus THREE mechanisms that can cause soil creep including the processes, the conditions that favor them, and the likely “magnitude” of the slope movement
b) How might you recognize, in the field, that creep is occurring on a slope. Is there any way to gauge the magnitude of movement? USE SKETCHES
c) What sort of hazard does creep represent?
M2. Two ways of dealing with landslide hazards are increasing the re¬sisting forces and de-creasing the driv¬ing forces.
a) What do these “mean” (i.e., what are we trying to do in each case)?
(Question M2 continues on next page with additional parts)
(Question M2 Continued)
b) LIST THREE specific techniques of achieving EACH of these two goals (that makes a list of six techniques, three for resisting forces and three for driving forces).
c) Now, choose ONE of the above techniques from EACH of your lists (that makes a total of two) and discuss them in some detail. How do they work to change the resist¬ing/driving forces? Where might they be applicable, etc.
M3. Consider debris avalanches (or snow avalanches your choice). Describe them (using sketches), describe the conditions that favor their formation, discuss how they can be induced using one “natural” and one “human” cause as examples, and, finally, discuss one or two possible specific methods for preventing this sort of mass wasting (BESIDES “don’t do the actions that cause them”).
V. Energy Resources (Fossil Fuels)
E1. Consider Fossil Fuels
a) The term “fossil” means “relic” or “remains”. Explain how this concept applies to fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas). In other words, what is “fossil” about them?
b) Choose one of the fossil fuels (coal, oil, or natural gas) and outline the geologic processes that produced it. Be sure and mention the approximate lengths of time needed to turn the original material into a fossil fuel.
E2. Consider Hydrologic Fracking and its relationship to the extraction of natural gas from geologically “tight” formations.
Exploitation of these resources was made possible by an advance in drilling technology that allowed for horizontal drilling. Explain what this is (using a diagram) and explain how this made how it works to make recovery of the shale gas economically possible.
VI. Field Trip
FT 1. Choose any ONE of our field trip stops (EXCEPT THE NORTH HAVEN LANDFILL) and discuss
a) What we saw (uses sketches, sketch maps, etc., as appropriate)
b) What lessons did you learn from this stop?