# Describe the coefficient of variation (CV) and the standard deviation (SD) in connection with risk attitudes and decision making.

A generous university benefactor has agreed to donate a large amount of money for student scholarships. The money can be provided in one lump sum of \$12 million in Year 0 (the current year), or in parts, in which \$7 million can be provided at the end of Year 1, and another \$7 million can be provided at the end of Year 2.

Describe your answer for each item below in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. Show all of your calculations and processes for the following points:

Assuming the opportunity interest rate is 8%, what is the present value of the second alternative mentioned above? Which of the two alternatives should be chosen and why?

How would your decision change if the opportunity interest rate is 12%?

Provide a description of a scenario where this kind of decision between two types of payment streams applies in the “real-world” business setting.

Problem 2:

The San Diego LLC is considering a three-year project, Project A, involving an initial investment of \$80 million and the following cash inflows and probabilities:

 Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Probability Cash Flow (\$ mil.) Probability Cash Flow (\$mil.) Probability Cash Flow (\$ mil.) 0.2 50 0.1 60 0.3 70 0.3 40 0.2 50 0.4 60 0.4 30 0.3 40 0.1 50 0.1 20 0.4 30 0.2 40 Initial Investment \$80 mil. Discount Rate 8%

Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. Show all of your calculations and processes for the following points:

Describe and calculate Project A’s expected net present value (ENPV) and standard deviation (SD), assuming the discount rate (or risk-free interest rate) to be 8%.

What is the decision rule in terms of ENPV?

What will be San Diego LLC’s decision regarding this project?

The company is also considering another three-year project, Project B, which has an ENPV of \$32 million and standard deviation of \$10.5 million. Project A and B are mutually exclusive.

Which of the two projects would you prefer if you do not consider the risk factor? Explain.

Describe the coefficient of variation (CV) and the standard deviation (SD) in connection with risk attitudes and decision making. If you now also consider your risk-aversion attitude, as the CEO of the San Diego LLC will you make a different decision between Project A and Project B?

Why or why not?

Guidance: (A) Recall that there are a few steps here: ENPV is the product of: the potential payment for each cash flow, the potential for that payment (probability) and the discount rate. Then you can add the discounted probable cash-flows together and use the “NPV” function in MS-Excel to find the NPV, to which you can then subtract the initial investment in order to obtain a comparable value to “project B”. Next, use the Standard Deviation function, available in MS-Excel formulas (STDEV) to find the standard deviation. Finally, look to the text to find out how to evaluate this information and make an investment decision. (B) Use your answers obtained in part “a” to evaluate “Project A” against “Project B”.  (C) Review Risk profiles for investors: risk averse = reject investment projects that are fair games or worse require a risk premium risk premium increases with risk; risk neutral = evaluate investment projects  based only on expected returns (ignore risk) and risk lover = prefer higher risk (similar to requiring a negative risk premium) most individuals are risk averse. Whatever level of paper you need – college, university, research paper, term paper or just a high school paper, you can safely place an order.