Human body systems have a variety of inter connectivity.

In this lab, you will observe diagrams that show the major components of the endocrine, circulatory, and respiratory systems. Using the textbook and virtual library resources, fill in the tables.

Explore Endocrine, Circulatory, and Respiratory Systems Lab

Using the M.U.S.E. link, review the background information and animation to complete your report. There are 2 parts to this lab on human body systems.

Use the following worksheets to complete your assignment:

Human body systems have a variety of inter connectivity. This lab will explore the functions and structures of the endocrine, circulatory (cardiovascular), and respiratory systems. The lab will also examine the interdependency of the body systems.

Your lab report will consist of the completed tables and related questions.

 

Table 1 – Endocrine System Hormones

 

Number Name of the Organ Function\Hormone(s) Produced or Secreted
1 Parathyroid Glands Parathyroid hormone
2 Thyroid Gland Thyroxine, calcitonin
3 Pineal Gland Melatonin
4 Hypothalamus Produces ADH and oxytocin, regulatory hormones for the anterior pituitary.

Produces and secretes TRH, Dopamine, GHRH, Somatostatin, Gonadotropin.

5 Pituitary Gland Anterior: Produces and secretes ACTH, TSH, GH, FSH, LH, MSH

Posterior: Secretes Oxytocin and ADH

6 Thymus Thymosins
7 Heart Atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide
8 Stomach Ghrelin, Gastrin, Histamine, Neuropeptide Y, Endothelin
9 Kidney Erythropoietin, Renin, Calcitriol
10 Small Intestine

(duodenum)

 

Secretin, cholecystokinin
11 Liver Insulin-like Growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Angiotensinogen, Thrombopoietin
12 Adrenal Glands

 

Medulla: epinephrine, norepinephrine.

Cortex: glucocorticoids (cortisol), aldosterone, testosterone

 

13 Pancreas Insulin, glucagon
14 Testes Androgens, testosterone
15 Uterus Prolactin and Relaxin, when pregnant
16 Ovary Estrogens, progesterone

 

 

 

Table 2 – Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System Functions

 

Number Name of the Structure Major Function
1 Carotid arteries Delivers blood to the head and brain
2 Jugular veins Carries blood from the head to the heart
3 Superior vena cava Carries blood from the upper body back to heart
4 Pulmonary veins Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
5 Aorta Delivers blood to the body tissue
6 Pulmonary arteries Delivers oxygen-poor blood to the lungs
7 Coronary arteries Delivers blood to the heart muscle cells
8 Inferior vena cava Carries blood from the lower body back to heart
9 Renal vein Carries blood from the kidney to the heart
10 Iliac vein Delivers blood from the pelvic organs and abdominal wall to the heart
11 Radial vein Carries blood from the hand to the heart
12 Renal artery Delivers blood to the kidneys
13 Iliac artery Delivers blood to the pelvic organs and abdominal wall
14 Radial artery Delivers blood to the hands
15 Femoral vein Carries blood from the thigh and inner knee to the heart
16 Femoral artery Delivers blood from the thigh and inner knee

 

 

 

Table 3 – Respiratory System Functions

 

Number Name of the Organ or Structure Major Function
1 Sinuses Cavities in skull; lightens head, warms and moistens air
2 Nasal cavity Produces mucus; filters, warms and moistens air; olfcation
3 Pharynx Passageway for air and food
4 Epiglottis Covers larynx during swallowing
5 Larynx Air passageway; prevents food and drink from entering lower respiratory system, produces voice
6 Lungs Contains alveoli and air passageways, allows exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between atmosphere and blood
7 Trachea Connects larynx with bronchi leading to lungs, conducts air to and from bronchi
8 Bronchi Two branches of trachea that conduct air from trachea to lungs
9 Bronchioles Narrow passageways to conduct air from bronchi to alveoli
10 Alveoli Microscopic chambers for gas exchange
11 Intercostal muscles Move ribs during breathing
12 Diaphragm Muscle sheet between chest and abdominal cavities with a role in breathing

End of Activity

References:

Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G., & Byers, B. E. (2008). Biology with physiology: Life on earth. (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Marieb, E. N. (2011). Essentials of human anatomy and physiology. (10th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings

Tortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. H. (2008). Principles of anatomy and physiology. (12th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

 

 

 

LAB PART 2!!!!

Endocrine System

The endocrine system is comprised of glands that produce chemical messengers. These messengers are called hormones. The glands include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, and adrenal gland. In addition, the pancreas, ovaries, and testes contain endocrine tissues and secrete hormones.

Question 1: How does the insulin and glucagon secreted by the pancreas function in glucose metabolism?

Answer 1: Insulin and glucagon work together to keep glucose levels in the blood within the normal range. When there is an elevated blood glucose level, this stimulates beta cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin. The insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose by body cells, and the liver will uptake the glucose and store it as glycogen. These actions return blood glucose levels back to normal. When there is decreased blood glucose, this stimulates the alpha cells in the pancreas to produce glucagon. The glucagon travels to the liver and facilitates the conversion of glycogen to glucose. This glucose is released in the bloodstream to return levels back to normal.

Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The heart is the pump that contracts to move the blood. The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body. The blood is the fluid that contains cells, nutrients, and gases.

Blood flows through the body in two distinct pathways: the pulmonary pathway and the systemic pathway. The blood flowing in the pulmonary pathway is deoxygenated and it delivers this blood to the lungs to be oxygenated again. The blood flowing in the systemic pathway leaves the lungs full of oxygen and flows through the heart to be delivered to the body tissues.

The following activity demonstrates the correct order for the pulmonary and systemic circulation as you trace a drop of blood flow through the body:

Pulmonary Circulation Systemic Circulation
1.      Venules 1.      Pulmonary veins
2.      Veins 2.      Left atrium
3.      Vena cava 3.      Left ventricle
4.      Right atrium 4.      Aorta
5.      Right ventricle 5.      Arteries
6.      Pulmonary arteries 6.      Arterioles
7.      Lung 7.      Capillaries

Respiratory System

The respiratory system functions to supply the body with oxygen. People inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This facilitates the delivery of oxygenated blood to all of the body cells.

Question 2: How do the cardiovascular and respiratory system work together to deliver blood to the body tissues?

Answer 2: The respiratory system functions in the exchange of gases with the outside environment. Oxygen is inhaled through the nasal cavity or the mouth, and it travels to the alveoli in the lungs. There, the capillaries exchange the oxygen for carbon dioxide. The oxygenated blood flows back to the heart from the lungs. It enters the left side of the heart and is delivered to all the body tissues via the aorta. In the capillaries of the body tissues, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. This deoxygenated blood flows back to the right side of the heart and then to the lung. In the capillaries that run across the alveoli, carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen that has recently been inhaled. The carbon dioxide will then be exhaled through the mouth and nasal cavity.

Exercise Activity

Exercising is an activity that requires the actions of multiple body organ systems. Each system performs its specific tasks, but they must work together to allow effective total body functioning during exercising.

In this activity, changes in the respiratory and heart rates in response to exercise will be recorded in the following table:

Activity Breathing Rate: bpm(breaths per minute) Pulse Rate: bpm (beats per minute)
At rest 16 bpm 70 bpm
During exercising 30 bpm 135 bpm
Immediately after exercising 30 bpm 105 bpm
5 minutes after exercising 25 bpm 90 bpm

Question 3: The body experiences some stressor such as exercise, fright, or emotional stress whether it be joy or sorrow. There are certain hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced during these stressful events. These hormones are produced by the adrenal gland, and they will have an effect on the heart rate and breathing rate. Explain how the hormones produced by the adrenal could play a role in altering the respiratory and heart rates during exercise.

Answer 3: When this occurs, the hypothalamus receives signals about the stress response. The body produces stress hormones. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine are released into the blood from an endocrine gland known as the adrenal gland. These hormones lead to an increase in carbon dioxide, which leads to an increase in respiratory rate. Epinephrine also increases the frequency of heartbeats whereas norepinephrine causes blood vessels to constrict. Both of these events increase the heart rate, the force of individual heart contraction, and the amount of blood flow to the muscles. These prepare the body to react to the stressor that has occurred.

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